Each was concluded from a range of experiments and observations made across multiple disciplines of science, including astronomy, geology, biology, palaeontology, chemistry, geomorphology and physics.
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Since the universe must be at least as old as the oldest thing in it, there are a number of observations which put a lower limit on the age of the universe; these include the temperature of the coolest white dwarfs, which gradually cool as they age, and the dimmest turnoff point of main sequence stars in clusters (lower-mass stars spend a greater amount of time on the main sequence, so the lowest-mass stars that have evolved off of the main sequence set a minimum age).
Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics.
The evidence against a recent creation is overwhelming.
There is perhaps no greater attack on science than Young Earth creationism (YEC).
This article collects evidences that place a lower limit on the age of the Universe beyond the 6,000 to 10,000 years asserted by most Young Earth creationists (YECs) and the literalist Ussher chronology.
This model is well understood theoretically and strongly supported by recent high-precision astronomical observations such as WMAP.
In contrast, theories of the origin of the primordial state remain very speculative.
All of this evidence supports deep time: the idea, considered credible by scientists since the early 1800s, that the Earth (and the Universe) is millions These limits usually take the form: "Because we observe [X], which occurs at rate [Y], the universe must be at least [Z] years old".
There are three standard creationist responses: First, creationists assert that current rates (Y) are different than past rates.
If one extrapolates the Lambda-CDM model backward from the earliest well-understood state, it quickly (within a small fraction of a second) reaches a singularity called the "Big Bang singularity".