Sigmund Freud, an early Austrian psychologist, is famous for his fundamental contributions to research in psychology.
The greatest contribution of Sigmund Freud is considered to be the so called psychoanalysis.
These participants were followed-up ∼5 years later (Wave 3) when they were aged 18 to 25.
Physical and psychological dating violence victimization was assessed at Wave 2.
It is also generally believed that personality of a child forms by the time he or she reaches the age of 20 or so.
Therefore, any psychological damage done before that age or shortly after would be hard to fix.
Such violent acts as rape, physical abuse, or verbal offences, when encountered by an adolescent, may irreparably damage his or her further life as an adult.
Even though contemporary psychologists disagree with Freud on many occasions and challenge assumptions used in his research, the fact that early occurrences of violence in one's life can irreparably damage ones psychological well being is generally considered to be true.Findings from this study emphasize the importance of screening and offering secondary prevention programs to both male and female victims.Although a number of cross-sectional studies have documented associations between teen dating violence victimization and adverse health outcomes, including sexual risk behaviors, suicidality, substance use, and depression, longitudinal work examining the relationship between victimization and outcomes is limited.James, West, Deters, and Armijo (2000) reported that 50% of their adolescent participants perpetrated physical violence in the form of scratching, pushing, shoving, and hitting with fist.Yet other studies have indicated that as many as 40% of the adolescent participants had perpetrated some form of physical violence against the dating partner (Malik, Sorenson, & Aneshensel, 1997; O'Keefe, 1997; O'Keefe & Treister, 1998; O'Leary, Smith Slep, Avery-Leaf, & Cascardi, 2008; Reuterman & Burcky, 1989).Twenty-nine percent of the girls and 24 percent of the boys reported being both a victim and perpetrator in either the same or in different relationships.