These rates are higher when verbal abuse is included in the definition.Teen dating violence appears to parallel violence in adult relationships in that it exists on a continuum ranging from verbal abuse to rape and murder (Sousa, 1999).It occurs in heterosexual and same-sex relationships and cuts across racial/ethnic and socio economic lines.
The researchers focused especially on cyber abuse but found that the following factors related to multiple forms of abuse: Another NIJ-funded study examined multiple risk factors among 223 at-risk, low-income teens in central Virginia.
The study first examined potential risk factors that each partner could bring to a relationship.
Risk factors and protective factors can be found across multiple contexts or domains, including factors specific to an individual, peer group or social group, relationship, or community/environment.
Multiple risk factors and protective factors may be at play within a relationship.
This article provides a critical review of the research literature with respect to risk factors for both perpetrators and victims of dating violence and examines the research on the effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs.
Risk factors have been defined as "attributes or characteristics that are associated with an increased probability of [its] reception and/or expression" (Hotaling & Sugarman, 1990 p. Risk factors are correlates of dating violence and not necessarily causative factors.
Not everyone who is identified as “at risk” becomes involved in violence.
Some risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration are the same, while others are associated with one another.
Research on youth violence has increased our understanding of factors that make some populations more vulnerable to victimization and perpetration.