This last point has been sufficiently discussed in the article INFALLIBILITY, and will be only incidentally touched on here.
Peter head of His Church is found in the two famous Petrine texts, Matthew -19, and John -17.
In Matthew -19, the office is solemnly promised to the Apostle.
The four chapters of that Constitution deal respectively with the office of Supreme Head conferred on St.
Peter, the perpetuity of this office in the person of the Roman pontiff, the pope's jurisdiction over the faithful, and his supreme authority to define in all questions of faith and morals.
Besides the bishopric of the Roman Diocese, certain other dignities are held by the pope as well as the supreme and universal pastorate: he is Archbishop of the Roman Province, Primate of Italy and the adjacent islands, and sole Patriarch of the Western Church.
The Church's doctrine as to the pope was authoritatively declared in the Vatican Council in the Constitution "Pastor Aeternus".
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Already, at this first meeting, the Saviour foretold the change of Simon's name to Cephas () a proof that Christ had already special views with regard to Simon.
Later, probably at the time of his definitive call to the Apostolate with the eleven other Apostles, Jesus actually gave Simon the name of Cephas (), after which he was usually called Peter, especially by Christ on the solemn occasion after Peter's profession of faith (Matthew ; cf. The Evangelists often combine the two names, while St. After the first meeting Peter with the other early disciples remained with Jesus for some time, accompanying Him to Galilee (Marriage at Cana), Judaea, and Jerusalem, and through Samaria back to Galilee (John 2-4).
Simon settled in Capharnaum, where he was living with his mother-in-law in his own house (Matthew ; Luke ) at the beginning of Christ's public ministry (about A. Simon pursued in Capharnaum the profitable occupation of fisherman in Lake Genesareth, possessing his own boat (Luke 5:3).