Sedative-hypnotics include nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonists (zaleplon, zolpidem, eszopiclone); short-acting benzodiazepine receptor agonists (triazolam); intermediate-acting benzodiazepine receptor agonists (estazolam, temazepam); and selective melatonin agonists (ramelteon).
Both eszopiclone and sustained-release zolpidem are effective for both sleep-onset and sleep-maintenance insomnia, with a reduced abuse potential and long-term efficacy of up to 6 months as compared with nonselective benzodiazepine receptor agonists.
A University of Utah study shows for the first time that continuous infusion benzodiazepines – a class of sedatives that includes lorazepam and midazolam, once considered the standard of care in the ICU – are linked to an increased likelihood of death among patients who receive mechanical ventilation, when compared to the sedative propofol.
The research was published in the .“We found there are better, safer ways than benzodiazepines to sedate people that can still deliver all the sedation you need while minimizing some of the complications associated with mechanical ventilation,” says senior author Richard Barton, M.
It is estimated that each year, there are nearly 1 million U. patients treated with a continuous, intravenous sedative in an ICU setting.
and Nick Lonardo on The Scope Radio Sedation is frequently required for mechanically ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients to reduce anxiety, provide comfort, and assist in providing optimal respiratory support.
These drugs fall into three major groups: anticholinergics, antihistamines, and benzodiazepines.
Anticholinergics affect muscarinic receptors and increase motion tolerance.
Anticholinergics also affect compensation, producing a reversible overcompensation if administered after compensation has been attained to a vestibular imbalance (Zee, 1988).
Agents with central anticholinergic effects are most important in treating vertigo, since anticholinergic drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier are ineffective in controlling motion sickness (Takeda et al, 1989).
Besides those two groups of drugs, other sedatives are also used for that purpose.